Water Online

May 2017

Water Innovations gives Water and Wastewater Engineers and end-users a venue to find project solutions and source valuable product information. We aim to educate the engineering and operations community on important issues and trends.

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behavioral change for the least amount of effort and money. Scarcity is a uniquely relevant principle for messaging to support energy efficiency and water conservation programs. Cialdini notes, "The idea of potential loss plays a large role in human decision-making. In fact, people seem to be more motivated by the thought of losing something than by the thought of gaining something of equal value" (2007). During times of drought, usage drops because people appreciate water more because it is scarce and recognize a threat to themselves if they do not conserve water for the future. Community-Based Social Marketing Developed by Dr. Doug McKenzie-Mohr, community-based social marketing (CBSM) is a behavioral change model based on goal-setting (Sheehy, 2004), creating a sense of community, and inspiring concerns for the environment (Anda et al, 2013) among end users. The first step in CBSM is to identify behaviors that are "non- divisible" and "end-of-state." For example, "adopting water efficient measures to reduce lawn irrigation" can be further divided into specific nondivisible behaviors, such as installing automatic sprinkler systems or replacing lawns with drought- resistant plants. These can also be end-of-state behaviors, which are those that lead to defined and final outcomes. Once nondivisible and end-of-state behaviors are identified, the second step in CBSM is to identify both the benefits of and the barriers to these actions. The third step, developing strategies to maximize benefits and overcome barriers, incorporates consideration of the following elements: 1. Commitment: gaining support from potential advocates 2. Prompts: friendly reminders to take actions that are positive, noticeable, self-explanatory, and in close proximity to where and when the actions must be taken 3. Norms: drawing on the likelihood of people to follow suit when witnessing others engaging in desired behaviors by actively publicizing those behaviors to help reinforce norms (McKenzie-Mohr [2011] observes the most effective strategy for reinforcing norms is one- on-one contact.) 4. Social diffusion: facilitating the adoption of new behaviors, using the strategies based on Rogers' work, by showing that peers and influencers (early adopters) have already done so, through public advocacy and publicity 5. Communication: persuasive messaging (often framed by the scarcity principle) tailored to the target audience, deployed by respected figures and ideally by personal contact, with opportunities for audience feedback 6. Incentives and disincentives: shown to be more sustainable when not monetary — for example, recognition or other means of gaining social approval 7. Convenience: identifying and overcoming external barriers that deter people from making behavioral choices that they would otherwise consider The fourth step in CBSM is to pilot the campaign to test both its feasibility and effectiveness. The findings from this experimental deployment guide the final step of bringing a campaign to scale to achieve its desired outcomes. Social Norms Marketing Social norms marketing (SNM) offers an alternative way of deploying theoretical insights regarding persuasion in the kinds of behavioral change campaigns that meet the needs of utilities. In 2013, East Bay Municipal Utility District (EBMUD) 18 wateronline.com n Water Innovations PUBLICOUTREACH Motive Persuasion Principle Activation Amplification Building Relationships "Why should I trust you?" Reciprocity (beginning) Gifts and concessions When gifts are significant, personalized, and unexpected; concessions work best when retreating Liking (strengthens) Similarity, praise, and cooperation Liking the one you're with Reducing Uncertainty "Why should I consider your offer?" Consensus (style and preference) By evidence of how others are thinking, feeling, and acting Offering evidence from many others, similar others, and by using uncertainty. Authority (evidence) Trappings — the cues of authority Establishing credibility, demonstrating expertise and trustworthiness Motivating Action "Why should I act now?" Consistency (internal) By commitments, prior choices, or stands By commitments that are active, public, and voluntary Scarcity (external) Info suggesting something is rare or dwindling in availability Loss framing, competition, exclusive information Influence: Core Motives

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